Current localization methods, including GPS-based technologies and probabilistic methods such as Kalman filters, are complex, expensive, and do not provide optimal accuracy in indoor environments. We propose a localization technique based on the time of flight (TOF) method that is implemented using a sensor module consisting of a radio module and ultrasonic sensor. Each robot calculates its distance to a central beacon and uses this information to construct a polar coordinate system that can be used to ascertain relative robot position. To provide a proof-of-concept for this idea, we also developed a formation algorithm that uses the robots’ locations to construct regular polygon formations.
Here’s a link to the paper.